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Retinopathy diabetes- An overview
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of visual loss in western adults of working age. Among diabetes mellitus microvascular complications, this is the most common. When the retina is damaged to the point of threatening vision, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness. People with diabetes can suffer from diabetic retinopathy. The retina is damaged when blood vessels are damaged by high blood sugar levels. There is a possibility of swelling and leakage of these blood vessels. They can also close, preventing blood from passing through.
About the Speaker
Assistant Professor,Biochemistry,Datta Megha Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha
Upcoming CME Events
Case discussion on Type 2 Diabetes
In a case discussion on Type 2 Diabetes, a comprehensive approach involves analyzing the patient's medical history, lifestyle factors, and glycemic control. Evaluating comorbidities, complications, and individualized treatment plans, including pharmacotherapy and lifestyle modifications, is essential. Discussions may revolve around optimizing glycemic targets, addressing cardiovascular risk factors, and promoting patient education for effective self-management. The multidisciplinary collaboration among healthcare professionals ensures a holistic strategy to manage Type 2 Diabetes, emphasizing personalized care and long-term health outcomes.
Preventing Diabetes: A Proactive Approach
Adopting a proactive approach to preventing diabetes involves promoting healthy lifestyle choices, such as maintaining a balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and managing stress. Maintaining a healthy weight is a crucial factor in diabetes prevention. Proactive measures include encouraging weight loss in individuals with excess body weight through a combination of diet and exercise. Incorporating regular exercise into daily routines helps improve insulin sensitivity and lowers the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week. Proactive healthcare involves regular screenings for individuals with risk factors such as family history, obesity, or sedentary lifestyles. Early detection allows for timely intervention and lifestyle modifications. Promoting awareness about the impact of diet on diabetes risk is essential. A proactive approach involves educating individuals on making informed food choices, emphasizing whole foods, and controlling portion sizes. Individuals with a family history or other risk factors should monitor blood sugar levels regularly. Proactive monitoring helps identify abnormal trends early, enabling intervention before diabetes develops.
Dapagliflozin in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Dapagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor that has shown promise in the management of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin has demonstrated efficacy in reducing the progression of CKD in individuals with type 2 diabetes by inhibiting the reabsorption of glucose and sodium in the proximal renal tubules. Clinical trials have indicated that dapagliflozin reduces albuminuria, a key marker of kidney damage, thereby potentially slowing the decline in renal function. The use of dapagliflozin has been associated with improvements in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), suggesting a positive impact on overall kidney function. Dapagliflozin's mechanism of action involves promoting glycosuria and natriuresis, leading to a reduction in intraglomerular pressure and ultimately protecting the kidneys. Studies have highlighted the cardiovascular benefits of dapagliflozin in CKD patients, including a reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events and heart failure hospitalizations. Dapagliflozin's renal protective effects extend beyond glycemic control, making it a valuable therapeutic option for patients with both diabetes and CKD. The safety profile of dapagliflozin in CKD patients appears favorable, with few adverse effects reported in clinical trials. Dapagliflozin's impact on renal outcomes has prompted its inclusion in treatment guidelines for individuals with type 2 diabetes and CKD.
Importance of HbA1c in Diabetes Management
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a crucial marker in diabetes management, and its importance cannot be overstated. Long-Term Blood Sugar Control: HbA1c reflects average blood glucose levels over the past 2-3 months, offering a valuable long-term view of glycemic control. HbA1c is used for the initial diagnosis of diabetes and as a screening tool to identify individuals at risk. It plays a central role in monitoring the effectiveness of diabetes treatment plans, including lifestyle changes, medications, and insulin therapy. Healthcare providers use HbA1c results to make informed adjustments to treatment regimens, ensuring blood sugar levels are well-controlled. High HbA1c levels are associated with an increased risk of diabetes-related complications, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and nerve damage. HbA1c helps set personalized glycemic targets for individuals with diabetes, guiding them toward optimal control. By providing a broader perspective on blood sugar control, HbA1c helps minimize the risk of severe hypoglycemic episodes. It empowers individuals with diabetes to actively engage in their care by providing a measurable and understandable marker of their progress.
Insulin and Weight Gain – Clinical Insights
Weight gain is a common concern for individuals with diabetes who require insulin therapy to manage their blood sugar levels. Insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose uptake by cells, and when used to treat diabetes, it can lead to an increase in body weight for some individuals. This weight gain is primarily due to insulin's role in promoting the storage of glucose as fat in adipose tissue and reducing the breakdown of stored fat. Insulin-induced weight gain tends to affect some people more than others, and genetic factors may play a role in determining susceptibility. Healthcare providers often emphasize the importance of monitoring caloric intake, portion sizes, and carbohydrate consumption when using insulin.Insulin therapy may lead to an increased appetite, making it important for individuals to be mindful of their eating habits. The prognosis for diastolic dysfunction varies but is generally better than systolic heart failure, especially with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Patients with diastolic dysfunction require regular follow-up and monitoring to assess changes in cardiac function and adjust treatment as needed.