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Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: A Case Study & Review of Literature
Autoimmune Addison disease affects the function of the adrenal glands, which are small hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney. It is classified as an autoimmune disorder because it results from a malfunctioning immune system that attacks the adrenal glands. As a result, the production of several hormones is disrupted, which affects many body systems. The signs and symptoms of autoimmune Addison disease can begin at any time, although they most commonly begin between ages 30 and 50. Common features of this condition include extreme tiredness (fatigue), nausea, decreased appetite, and weight loss. In addition, many affected individuals have low blood pressure (hypotension), which can lead to dizziness when standing up quickly; muscle cramps; and a craving for salty foods. A characteristic feature of autoimmune Addison disease is abnormally dark areas of skin (hyperpigmentation), especially in regions that experience a lot of friction, such as the armpits, elbows, knuckles, and palm creases. The lips and the inside lining of the mouth can also be unusually dark. Because of an imbalance of hormones involved in development of sexual characteristics, women with this condition may lose their underarm and pubic hair.
About the Speaker
Dr Sandip Gosh
MBBS, MD, MRCP, CCT Endocrinologist
Diabetes in critically ill patient
Critically ill patients are at a higher risk of developing diabetes due to the stress on their body. Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is a common complication of insulin therapy in critically ill patients with diabetes. Malnutrition, Infections can exacerbate diabetes in critically ill patients and lead to poor outcomes. Sepsis is a common complication which can lead to organ failure and increase mortality. Medications commonly used in critically ill patients, such as corticosteroids, can worsen glucose control in patients with diabetes. Critically ill patients with diabetes may require insulin pump therapy or continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to manage their blood sugar levels effectively.
Retinopathy diabetes- An overview
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of visual loss in western adults of working age. Among diabetes mellitus microvascular complications, this is the most common. When the retina is damaged to the point of threatening vision, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness. People with diabetes can suffer from diabetic retinopathy. The retina is damaged when blood vessels are damaged by high blood sugar levels. There is a possibility of swelling and leakage of these blood vessels. They can also close, preventing blood from passing through.
Cardiometabolic case on Diabetes: Know Diabetes By Heart
Diabetes produces acute and chronic toxicity to vascular endothelium in the patients resulting in spikes in hyperglycemia due to exposure to postprandial glucose. This causes microvascular and macrovascular complications.Damage to blood vessels starts early in such conditions.CVD and diabetes are interrelated,treatment focuses on the shared pathophysiologic mechanism of the diseases.
Gestational Diabetes: case approach
Gestational diabetes occurs when your body can’t make enough insulin during your pregnancy. During pregnancy, body makes more hormones and goes through other changes, such as weight gain. These changes cause your body’s cells to use insulin less effectively, a condition called insulin resistance. Insulin resistance increases your body’s need for insulin. All pregnant women have some insulin resistance during late pregnancy. However, some women have insulin resistance even before they get pregnant. They start pregnancy with an increased need for insulin and are more likely to have gestational diabetes.