- 30.4k views
Case Discussion on Congenital Hypothyroidism
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a condition in which the thyroid gland is underactive from birth. The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development. CH is the most common endocrine disorder in newborns, affecting about 1 in 2,000 to 4,000 births. The condition can lead to intellectual disability and other developmental problems if left untreated.Newborn screening tests can detect CH, and early treatment can prevent complications. CH can be caused by genetic or environmental factors. The most common cause of CH is an underdeveloped or absent thyroid gland. Other causes include defects in the hormone synthesis pathway and maternal thyroid disease. Symptoms of CH may not be apparent at birth but can include poor feeding, constipation, and a hoarse cry. If left untreated, CH can lead to growth failure, intellectual disability, and other developmental delays. Treatment for CH involves lifelong hormone replacement therapy with synthetic thyroid hormone.
About the Speaker
Dr Tejasvi Sheshadrissa
,MD Paediatrics,Consultant Paediatric Endocrinologist, Sparsh Hospitals, Bangalore
Pediatric Urological Emergencies
Pediatric urological emergencies encompass a range of critical conditions affecting the urinary system in children, requiring immediate medical attention. One common emergency is testicular torsion, where the twisting of the spermatic cord cuts off blood flow to the testicle, causing severe pain and potential testicular loss if not promptly addressed. Renal colic due to kidney stones can be excruciating for children, necessitating emergency care to manage pain and facilitate stone passage or removal. Priapism, a prolonged and painful erection in males, especially when unrelated to sexual arousal, is a pediatric urological emergency demanding immediate attention to prevent tissue damage.Fournier's gangrene, a rare but life-threatening condition, can affect children, causing rapidly spreading tissue infection in the genital and perineal areas, demanding urgent surgical intervention.
Clinical approach to Cough in Pediatrics
When assessing and managing cough in pediatric patients, a systematic clinical approach is essential to identify the underlying cause and provide appropriate care. Begin by obtaining a detailed history, including the onset, duration, and characteristics of the cough, as well as associated symptoms. Recognize that the causes and management of cough can vary significantly with the child's age. Evaluate the severity of the cough and its impact on the child's daily activities, sleep, and feeding. Inquire about environmental factors such as exposure to tobacco smoke, allergens, or irritants. Verify the child's immunization status, as some vaccine-preventable diseases can cause cough. Review the child's medical history, including any previous respiratory conditions, allergies, or chronic diseases.
Neurological Disorders in Children
Neurological disorders in children encompass a wide range of conditions affecting the developing nervous system. Common disorders include epilepsy, characterized by recurrent seizures that can impact a child's daily life and development. Cerebral palsy, a non-progressive disorder, affects movement, posture, and muscle coordination due to brain damage during early life. Autism spectrum disorders, marked by difficulties in social interaction and communication, fall within the neurological realm. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) leads to challenges in sustaining attention, impulse control, and hyperactive behavior. Genetic conditions like Down syndrome affect both cognitive and neurological functions, leading to varying degrees of intellectual and developmental disabilities. Pediatric migraines can be debilitating, causing severe headaches, sensitivity to light, and nausea. Tourette syndrome manifests as involuntary movements and vocalizations, known as tics, that often appear during childhood. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) affects motor skills, causing difficulties in activities like writing, tying shoelaces, and using utensils
Transposition of Great Arteries : Clues on prenatal Diagnosis
Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) is a congenital heart defect in which the two main arteries, the aorta, and the pulmonary artery, are switched in their positions. Prenatal diagnosis of TGA is crucial as it allows for early intervention after birth. Routine fetal ultrasounds can provide the first clues. Suspicion arises when the normal cross over between the great arteries is not visualized. Blood flow patterns can be assessed with Doppler ultrasound. Other cardiac abnormalities might be detected during prenatal ultrasounds, such as a ventricular septal defect (VSD) often associated with TGA.
Clinical approach : Acute Myocarditis & Cardiomyopathy in Children
Acute myocarditis and cardiomyopathy are serious heart conditions affecting children. Myocarditis involves inflammation of the heart muscle, often triggered by viral infections. Cardiomyopathy encompasses various heart muscle diseases, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the most common type in children. Symptoms may include chest pain, rapid heartbeat, fatigue, and swelling. Diagnosis involves tests like echocardiograms, and treatment varies based on the cause and severity, including medications, supportive care, and in some cases, heart transplantation. Early medical attention is crucial for better outcomes. Pediatric cardiologists play a vital role in managing these conditions in children.