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Non surgical therapies for valve repairs and replacements
Non-surgical therapies for valve repairs and replacements offer alternative options to traditional open-heart surgery for patients with heart valve disorders. TAVR is a minimally invasive procedure that involves replacing a narrowed aortic valve with a bioprosthetic valve via a catheter. It's often suitable for high-risk or inoperable patients. TMVR involves repairing a leaking mitral valve using catheter-based techniques like the MitraClip. It's an option for select patients with mitral regurgitation. Annuloplasty rings are used to reshape and support the mitral valve through minimally invasive approaches, preserving valve function .Artificial chords are inserted through minimally invasive procedures to correct mitral valve prolapse, improving valve function.
About the Speaker
Dr. Ranga Reddy
Consultant Cardiologist, Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad
Dr. Ranga Reddy has teaching exposure in Internal Medicine and Cardiology at MGMC Pondicherry and is involved since 2017 in teaching Cardiology for DNB Candidates. In the last few years, he has done complex angioplasties including Left Main, TVDs, Bifurcations, CTOs and Primary Angioplasty. Dr. Ranga Reddy has special interest in Carotid ,Peripheral ,Endovascular and structural Interventions
Paths to Healthy Heart
Achieving a healthy heart involves adopting lifestyle practices that prioritize cardiovascular well-being. This includes maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins, engaging in regular physical activity to promote cardiovascular fitness, managing stress through relaxation techniques, avoiding tobacco products, limiting alcohol intake, and ensuring regular health check-ups to monitor blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and overall heart health. Combining these elements fosters a holistic approach to cardiovascular wellness, reducing the risk of heart disease and promoting a heart-healthy lifestyle.Embarking on a path to a healthy heart involves recognizing the interconnectedness of lifestyle choices and their profound impact on cardiovascular health. Regular aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, or swimming, contribute to cardiovascular fitness and weight management. Adopting a diet low in saturated fats, salt, and added sugars while prioritizing heart-friendly nutrients further supports heart health. Additionally, maintaining a healthy body weight, managing stress through activities like meditation or yoga, and refraining from smoking are integral components.
Atrial Fibrillation – A Concise Review
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia characterized by rapid, irregular electrical activity in the atria of the heart. AF is a prevalent condition, affecting millions of individuals worldwide, and its incidence increases with age. Risk factors for AF include hypertension, aging, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and alcohol consumption. AF can present with a wide range of symptoms, from palpitations and shortness of breath to fatigue, dizziness, and chest discomfort. AF is associated with an increased risk of stroke, heart failure, and other cardiovascular complications due to the irregular heartbeat's impact on blood flow and clot formation. Treatment strategies aim to control the heart rate and rhythm, reduce the risk of stroke with anticoagulation therapy, and address underlying causes and risk factors. In some cases, catheter ablation may be considered to treat AF by isolating or modifying the areas responsible for abnormal electrical signals. Lifestyle changes, including alcohol moderation, weight management, and stress reduction, play a crucial role in managing AF and improving overall cardiovascular health.
Managing Pericardial Effusion
Managing pericardial effusion, a condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid around the heart within the pericardial sac, is a multi-faceted approach that aims to alleviate symptoms, identify the underlying cause, and prevent complications. The initial goal is to provide relief from symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations. This may involve pain management and measures to reduce fluid accumulation. Comprehensive diagnostic tests, including echocardiography and imaging, help determine the cause, size, and severity of the effusion. Pericardial effusion can be secondary to various conditions, such as infections, inflammatory diseases, or malignancies. Identifying and treating the underlying cause is crucial. If the effusion is small and not causing significant symptoms or compromising cardiac function, a watch-and-wait approach may be employed. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or colchicine can be used to reduce inflammation. For patients with recurrent effusions, other interventions, such as pericardial sclerosis or pericardiectomy, may be considered to prevent fluid accumulation.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and AED use
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Automated External Defibrillator (AED) use are critical life-saving skills. In cases of cardiac arrest, prompt action is crucial. Begin CPR immediately to maintain blood circulation and oxygen delivery to vital organs. CPR involves rhythmic chest compressions to pump blood throughout the body. Push hard and fast in the center of the chest at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute. CPR often includes rescue breaths to provide oxygen to the victim. Follow the recommended compression-to-ventilation ratio, usually 30 compressions to 2 breaths for adults. AEDs are portable devices that can analyze the heart's rhythm and deliver a shock if needed. Locate and use an AED if available as soon as possible. Modern AEDs provide clear voice and visual instructions. Anyone can use them effectively after minimal training. Before starting CPR, check for responsiveness and call for help by dialing emergency services or having someone else do so. The chain of survival in cardiac emergencies involves early recognition and activation of emergency services, immediate CPR, rapid defibrillation with an AED, advanced life support, and post-resuscitation care.
Heart Health: World Heart Day
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening medical condition characterized by rapid-onset severe respiratory failure. It occurs when the lungs become severely inflamed, leading to fluid buildup in the air sacs, which impairs oxygen exchange. Common causes include infections, trauma, or inhaling harmful substances. Patients with ARDS often require mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting to support their breathing and oxygenation. Early recognition and treatment are crucial for better outcomes.