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Non Alcoholic Fatty liver Diseases: An Overview
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disease worldwide, affecting up to 25% of the global population. The exact cause is unknown, but it is often associated with obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol levels. It is divided into two types: simple fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is a more severe form of NAFLD that can lead to liver damage and cirrhosis. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests, imaging tests (such as ultrasound or MRI), and sometimes a liver biopsy. Treatment involves lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. In some cases, medications may be prescribed.
About the Speaker
Dr Siddharth Dhande MD
Gastroenterologist Hepatologist and Interventional Endoscopist, Mumbai
Gastrointestinal dysfunction in the Critically ill Patients
Gastrointestinal dysfunction can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, infections, food intolerances, medications, and autoimmune disorders. Some gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), can be chronic and require ongoing management. Gastrointestinal dysfunction can impact overall health and wellbeing, leading to malnutrition, dehydration, and other complications if left untreated. Treatment for gastrointestinal dysfunction may include dietary changes, medications, and lifestyle modifications, such as exercise and stress reduction. Certain medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics, can disrupt the balance of bacteria in the gut and contribute to gastrointestinal dysfunction.
Case Based Discussion on Hernia Management
Hernia management involves the treatment of a condition in which an organ or tissue protrudes through a weakened area of the surrounding muscle or connective tissue. The most common types of hernias include inguinal hernias, which occur in the groin, and umbilical hernias. Surgical hernia repair is typically recommended for larger, more symptomatic hernias, or those that have the potential to become incarcerated or strangulated. Open hernia repair involves making an incision at the site of the hernia, while laparoscopic repair involves using a small camera and specialized instruments to repair the hernia through several small incisions. Recovery from hernia surgery typically involves a period of rest and limited physical activity, as well as pain management and follow-up care with the surgeon.
Case Discussion on Complication of Esophageal Resection
Technically difficult operations include esophageal resection and gastrointestinal continuity restoration. Morbidity and mortality rates are influenced by a variety of variables, including patient comorbidities, surgical technique, and hospital/surgeon volume. The total incidence of postoperative complications ranges from 20 to 80%, and they can be either systemic (such as pneumonia or cardiac infarction) or surgical procedure-specific (such as anastomotic leaks or recurrent laryngeal nerve damage). The majority of individuals (16–67%) who experience postoperative problems have pulmonary issues.
Advanced Endoscopic Imaging
Endoscopy has been transformed by the quick advancements achieved in novel endoscopic technology to enhance mucosal visibility. Modern endoscopists can now offer visual diagnosis in real time due to improved lesion detection. High-definition endoscopy and optical contrast techniques including narrow-band imaging, flexible spectral imaging, color enhancement, and i-scan are now commercially available thanks to advancements in picture resolution, software processing, and optical filter technology. These methods have complimented and improved standard white light endoscopy, together with autofluorescence imaging and confocal laser endomicroscopy.
Endoscopy in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
In the diagnosis, management, and therapy of inflammatory bowel disease, endoscopy is essential (IBD). Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy have long been employed in the treatment of IBD patients. The application of endoscopy in IBD has grown as a result of the development of instruments including endoscopic ultrasonography, capsule endoscopy, and balloon-assisted enteroscopy. Chromoendoscopy has also improved our capacity to recognise dysplasia in IBD. We will concentrate on the functions, uses, and restrictions of these technologies in IBD in this review study. We will also go through the most popular endoscopic grading methods and unique considerations for patients who have just undergone surgery. Finally, we'll talk about how endoscopy is used to diagnose and treat fistulas and strictures.