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Congenital Fetal Anomalies : Clinical View
Congenital anomalies can be defined as structural or functional anomalies that occur during intrauterine life. Also called birth defects, congenital disorders, or congenital malformations, these conditions develop prenatally and may be identified before or at birth, or later in life. An estimated 6% of babies worldwide are born with a congenital anomaly, resulting in hundreds of thousands of associated deaths. However, the true number of cases may be much higher because statistics do not often consider terminated pregnancies and stillbirths. Some congenital anomalies can be treated with surgical and non-surgical options, such as cleft lip and palate, clubfoot, and hernias. Others, including heart defects, neural tube defects, and down syndrome, can cause lifelong impacts. Congenital anomalies are one of the main causes of the global burden of disease, and low- and middle-income countries are disproportionately affected. These areas are also less likely to have facilities to treat reversible conditions such as clubfoot, leading to more pronounced and long-lasting effects.
About the Speaker
Dr Vishal Parmar
MBBS, DCH, MRCPCH,Fellow in Neonatal Medicine,PGPN Bostan Pediatrician Mumbai, India.
How to address behavior challenges in Autistic Children?
Autistic children may exhibit challenging behaviors due to difficulty in communication and social interaction. They may struggle with expressing their needs and emotions in a way that others can understand, leading to frustration and anxiety. Changes in routine or environment can be particularly challenging for autistic children, leading to disruptive behaviors such as meltdowns or aggression. Some autistic children may engage in repetitive behaviors, such as rocking or hand-flapping, that can be disruptive in certain situations. Lack of sleep can also contribute to challenging behaviors in autistic children.
Case Discussion on Management of Infantile Epilepsy
Infantile epilepsy, also known as early onset epilepsy, is a type of epilepsy that starts in the first two years of life. It is characterized by seizures that may be subtle, such as staring spells, or more obvious, such as convulsions. The causes of infantile epilepsy are varied and may be due to genetic factors, brain malformations, or brain injuries. The management of infantile epilepsy involves a comprehensive approach that focuses on controlling seizures, minimizing side effects of medications, and improving the quality of life of the child and their family. Treatment typically involves the use of antiepileptic drugs, which are selected based on the type of epilepsy and the age of the child.
Case Discussion on Hematuria in Children
In children, the causes of hematuria can range from simple infections to serious diseases such as kidney disorders or tumors. The color of the urine may vary from pink to red to brown, depending on the amount and type of blood present. Common causes of hematuria in children include urinary tract infections, bladder or kidney stones, and trauma to the urinary tract. Diagnostic tests for hematuria in children may include a physical examination, urine analysis, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment for hematuria will depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, surgery, or medication to manage associated symptoms.
Case Discussion on Neonatal Jaundice
Neonatal jaundice is characterized clinically by a yellowish discoloration of the skin, sclera, and mucous membrane and is caused by high total serum bilirubin (TSB). Unconjugated bilirubin's negative effects on the central nervous system are particularly dangerous for preterm infants and those born with congenital enzyme impairments. If left untreated, severe hyperbilirubinemia may produce acute and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy and bilirubin-induced neurological impairment.