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Aortic Aneurysms: What you need to Know
Aortic aneurysms can occur in different parts of the aorta, including the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. It can be caused by a number of factors, including high blood pressure, smoking, atherosclerosis (a build-up of fatty deposits in the arteries), connective tissue disorders (such as Marfan syndrome), and family history. They are diagnosed using imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound. Treatment for aortic aneurysms depends on their size, location, and other factors. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests, while larger aneurysms may require surgery or other interventions.Some people may be at higher risk of developing aortic aneurysms, including those with a family history of the condition, smokers, and people with high blood pressure or cholesterol.
About the Speaker
Dr. Munish Chauhan
Senior Consultant, Critical Care Medicine, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon
Cardiac arrest and its management in emergency
In recent years, significant advances have been made in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints. These advancements have revolutionized the management of RA, providing new hope and improved outcomes for patients. Biologic drugs have emerged as a game-changer in RA treatment. These medications specifically target molecules and pathways involved in the immune response, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Janus kinase (JAK) enzymes. Biologics have shown remarkable efficacy in reducing inflammation, slowing disease progression, and improving overall joint function. The concept of personalized medicine has gained prominence in RA treatment. Genetic testing and biomarker analysis help identify specific characteristics and disease mechanisms in individual patients. This information enables physicians to tailor treatment strategies, selecting the most appropriate medications and dosages for each person, leading to better outcomes. In cases where joint damage is severe and non-responsive to medical therapy, surgical interventions have also seen advancements. Joint replacement surgeries, such as total hip or knee replacements, have become increasingly sophisticated and durable, relieving pain and restoring mobility for individuals with advanced RA.
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening medical condition characterized by rapid-onset severe respiratory failure. It occurs when the lungs become severely inflamed, leading to fluid buildup in the air sacs, which impairs oxygen exchange. Common causes include infections, trauma, or inhaling harmful substances. Patients with ARDS often require mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting to support their breathing and oxygenation. Early recognition and treatment are crucial for better outcomes.
Hemodynamic Instability: Management
Haemodynamic instability refers to a state where a person's circulatory system is unable to maintain adequate blood flow and perfusion to vital organs, often resulting in a critical medical condition. This instability can manifest as low blood pressure, rapid heart rate, altered mental status, and organ dysfunction. Causes can range from severe infections, bleeding, heart failure, or traumatic injuries. Prompt evaluation, diagnosis, and intervention are crucial to address the underlying cause, stabilize the patient's haemodynamics, and prevent further deterioration, often involving interventions like fluid resuscitation, medications, or surgical procedures.
Basics of ECG
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a non-invasive medical technique that captures the heart's electrical behavior by placing electrodes on the skin's surface, usually on the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the depolarization and repolarization of cardiac muscle, translating them into a visual representation on an electrocardiogram. The resulting waveform, consisting of P, QRS, and T waves, provides insights into the heart's health. Medical professionals use ECG to diagnose arrhythmias, ischemia (reduced blood supply), electrolyte imbalances, and other cardiac conditions. The ECG's data assists in treatment decisions, risk assessment, and monitoring the effectiveness of interventions, making it an indispensable tool in cardiology and emergency medicine. .
Usage of 2D Echo in Critical Care settings
2D echo, or two-dimensional echocardiography, is a valuable diagnostic tool used in critical care settings. It provides real-time images of the heart's structures and function, aiding in the assessment and management of critically ill patients. In critical care, 2D echo is used to evaluate cardiac function and detect abnormalities that may require immediate intervention. It allows for the visualization of the heart's chambers, valves, and blood flow patterns, providing crucial information for decision-making. 2D echo helps in the assessment of myocardial contractility, which is vital in monitoring and managing critically ill patients. It is useful in evaluating and diagnosing conditions such as myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathies, and pericardial diseases. In critical care settings, 2D echo aids in the detection of complications like cardiac tamponade or acute valvular dysfunction. It helps assess the impact of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or sepsis on cardiac function. It assists in identifying the cause of shock, such as cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive, or distributive shock. 2D echo can detect right ventricular dysfunction, which is a common feature in acute respiratory failure or pulmonary embolism. It helps guide fluid resuscitation by evaluating left ventricular filling pressures and assessing volume status.