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Pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood clot or other substance travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in the pulmonary arteries, which supply blood to the lungs. The most common cause is deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a condition in which blood clots form in the veins of the legs or other parts of the body and travel to the lungs. Symptoms can vary depending on the size and location of the clot, but may include chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing, and rapid heartbeat. Risk factors include immobility, surgery or trauma, pregnancy, cancer, obesity, smoking, and taking certain medications like birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy. Diagnostic tests may include a chest x-ray, CT scan, ultrasound, or blood tests. Treatment of PE typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent further clots from forming and possibly thrombolytic medications to dissolve existing clots. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove a clot or repair damage to the lungs. Prevention of Pulmonary embolism involves measures such as maintaining a healthy weight, staying physically active, quitting smoking, and taking anticoagulant medications as prescribed.
About the Speaker
Dr. Prashant Saxena
Associate Director & Head, Pulmonology, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine, Max Smart Super Specialty Hospital,
“Yes! We can end TB! World Tuberculosis Day “
Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death worldwide, with an estimated 1.5 million deaths in 2020, and is particularly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course) regimen is the recommended treatment for tuberculosis (TB) by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is a six-month course of four first-line drugs: Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide. The DOTS regimen is also cost-effective and feasible to implement in resource-limited settings, making it a critical component of global efforts to end TB.
Practical Approach to COPD
The practical approach to COPD involves a combination of lifestyle modifications, medication, and pulmonary rehabilitation to manage symptoms and prevent exacerbations. In addition to smoking cessation, regular exercise, a healthy diet, and adequate sleep can also improve COPD symptoms and overall health. Medications for COPD include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. These medications help to improve lung function, reduce inflammation, and prevent exacerbations. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a structured program that combines exercise, breathing techniques, and education to improve COPD symptoms and quality of life. Oxygen therapy may be necessary for some COPD patients with low oxygen levels. Oxygen therapy can improve exercise tolerance and reduce the risk of exacerbations.
Asthma: ICU Management and protocols
GINA advises using short-acting beta2 agonists (SABAs) for children aged six to eleven and as-needed ICS/formoterol for adults to treat patients with mild intermittent asthma as needed. 4 However, the Focused Updates panel did not address this matter and continued to support the use of SABA as required. The whole alveolar surface of the lungs is coated with pulmonary surfactant, a special blend of lipids and proteins that are only found in surfactants. Surfactant is present in upper airway secretions and reaches terminal conducting airways in addition to the alveolar compartment.
Apporach to ILD
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a broad term used to describe a group of chronic lung conditions. An accurate diagnosis of ILD requires a thorough medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans provide detailed images of the lungs and help to identify specific patterns of lung disease. The treatment of ILD depends on the underlying cause and can include medications, oxygen therapy, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgical interventions such as lung transplantation may be required.