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Overview of Macronutrients & Micronutrients
The majority of the diet is made up of macronutrients, which also provide energy and many necessary nutrients. The macronutrients are water, microminerals, proteins (including necessary amino acids), fats (including essential fatty acids), and carbohydrates. Proteins, carbs, and fats can all be used as energy sources; lipids have a caloric value of 9 kcal/g (37.8 kJ/g), while proteins and carbohydrates have a caloric value of 4 kcal/g (16.8 kJ/g). Micronutrients include trace minerals and vitamins, which are needed in very small levels.
About the Speaker
Nt Asritha Vissapragada
Nutrition Counselor at TRULY NUTRITION
Role of Nutrition in Health and Well-Being
Nutrition plays a pivotal role in promoting overall health and well-being by supplying the body with essential nutrients that support its growth, maintenance, and functioning. A balanced and varied diet provides the necessary vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats that contribute to optimal bodily functions, energy levels, and immune system strength. Adequate nutrition is closely linked to preventing chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity, as well as supporting healthy aging and cognitive function. Nutrient-rich foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats offer a spectrum of benefits, from boosting metabolism to aiding in digestion. Proper nutrition during different life stages, such as childhood, pregnancy, and old age, is vital for growth, development, and maintaining vitality. Hydration, an essential aspect of nutrition, ensures proper bodily functions, including regulating body temperature and transporting nutrients.
Case Discussion on Role of Micronutrients in Thyroid
Micronutrients play a crucial role in thyroid function, supporting its hormonal regulation and overall health. Iodine, an essential micronutrient, is a key component of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Deficiency can lead to thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Selenium aids in the conversion of T4 to active T3 and protects the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. Zinc is necessary for thyroid hormone production and proper immune function. Iron is vital for thyroid peroxidase, an enzyme required for thyroid hormone synthesis. Adequate intake of these micronutrients through a balanced diet is essential for maintaining optimal thyroid function and preventing related disorders.
Pediatric and Maternal Nutrition
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy significantly impacts fetal growth and development. Adequate maternal intake of essential nutrients like folate, iron, and calcium is crucial for the baby's health. Proper nutrition during pregnancy helps reduce the risk of birth complications and promotes healthy birth weight. Breastfeeding is recommended as the best source of nutrition for infants up to six months, providing essential antibodies and nutrients. Exclusive breastfeeding supports optimal growth and development during the first six months of life. Introducing complementary foods after six months, along with continued breastfeeding, ensures a balanced diet for infants. Pediatric nutrition plays a pivotal role in supporting growth, cognitive development, and immune function in children. Early exposure to a variety of foods can help prevent picky eating and foster healthy eating habits later in life. Age-appropriate portions and balanced meals with a mix of fruits, vegetables, proteins, and grains are essential for children's nutrition.
Nutrition interventions for obesity and metabolic disorders.
Obesity and metabolic disorders have become significant public health concerns worldwide. Nutrition interventions play a crucial role in managing and preventing these conditions. Obesity is a complex condition characterized by excessive body fat accumulation. It increases the risk of developing metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers. Poor dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle, and genetic factors contribute to the development of obesity. Maintaining a healthy energy balance is key to managing obesity. It involves consuming an appropriate amount of calories that matches the body's energy needs. Nutrition interventions focus on promoting a negative energy balance by reducing calorie intake and increasing energy expenditure through physical activity. Increasing dietary fiber intake through whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes can aid in weight management. Fiber-rich foods provide satiety, improve glycemic control, and promote a healthy gut
Identifying Common Food Additives: Nutritionists POV
Nutritionists play a crucial role in identifying common food additives and their potential impact on human health. Food additives are substances added to food during processing or preparation to enhance its flavor, appearance, texture, or shelf life. One common food additive is artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame or sucralose, used as low-calorie alternatives to sugar. Nutritionists examine the potential health risks associated with artificial sweeteners, including their impact on blood sugar levels and the development of metabolic disorders. Another common food additive is monosodium glutamate (MSG), used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Nutritionists study the effects of MSG on individuals, including potential allergic reactions and its contribution to the obesity epidemic. Nutritionists also focus on artificial food colorings, such as Red 40 or Yellow 5, and their association with hyperactivity and behavioral issues in children. Trans fats, often found in processed and fried foods, are another concern for nutritionists due to their negative impact on heart health and cholesterol levels.