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Nutrition in ICU Calorie Count
Nutritional status in critically ill patients can be difficult to assess. Anthropometric measurements (eg. skin fold thickness and mid-arm circumference) are commonly used to assess populations but are not particularly useful in individuals. Biochemical tests also have their limitations: albumin levels fall rapidly as part of the acute phase response and hemoglobin is affected by hemorrhage, haemolysis, transfusion and bone marrow suppression. Transferrin, prealbumin and lymphocyte counts can be useful however they are dependent on the patient being well hydrated. Body Mass Index (mass [kg] / height [m] 2) is a frequently used tool (with a BMI < 18.5 classed as underweight) and has been shown to be an independent predictor of mortality in seriously ill patients. Nevertheless it does not reflect the acute changes in nutritional status important in critical illness and is used most for the assessment of long term health risks of obesity. Probably the most useful measure of nutritional status is a targeted history and examination. One such method which is widely accepted is known as the Subjective Global Assessment which includes Weight change – both chronic (over 6 months) and acute (over 2 weeks ), Changes in food intake, Gastrointestinal symptoms – nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and anorexia, Functional impairment and is combined with a physical examination
About the Speaker
Dr. Adel Mohamed Yasin Al Sisi
MBBS, MD(Critical Care Medicine) , Ph. D (Critical Care Medicine)
ECPR : Chance to Resurgence
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) represents a chance for resurgence in patients experiencing cardiac arrest. Lifesaving Intervention: ECPR is a lifesaving intervention for patients in cardiac arrest who do not respond to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). It involves using a heart-lung machine to provide mechanical support to the heart and lungs, allowing for continued circulation and oxygenation. ECPR must be rapidly deployed, often in emergency departments or specialized settings, to maximize its effectiveness. ECPR serves as a bridge to recovery, buying time for the underlying cause of cardiac arrest to be addressed and potentially reversed. Studies suggest that ECPR can lead to improved survival rates and neurological outcomes compared to conventional CPR alone. Successful ECPR requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, perfusionists, and critical care specialists. Ongoing research aims to refine ECPR protocols, identify optimal candidates, and improve its accessibility in various healthcare settings.
Management of Acute Kidney Failure
Managing acute kidney failure, also known as acute kidney injury (AKI), is a critical medical intervention that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Rapidly identify the signs and symptoms of AKI, including decreased urine output, fluid retention, and elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Determine and address the underlying cause of AKI, which can include dehydration, infections, medication toxicity, or underlying medical conditions. Carefully manage fluid balance, as both dehydration and fluid overload can worsen AKI. Tailor fluid administration to the patient's needs. Diuretics may be used cautiously to manage fluid overload, but their use should be monitored closely. Review and adjust medications, especially nephrotoxic drugs, which can exacerbate kidney injury. Monitor and correct electrolyte imbalances, such as hyperkalemia or hyponatremia, which can occur in AKI. Consider renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) in severe cases to remove waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream.
Management of Stroke in ICU
Rapid transfer of stroke patients to the ICU allows for immediate assessment and intervention.Continuous monitoring of vital signs, neurological status, and oxygen saturation is essential to detect changes promptly. Administration of clot-dissolving agents like tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within the therapeutic window can restore blood flow in ischemic stroke patients. For large vessel occlusion, mechanical removal of the clot using catheter-based techniques can be performed in eligible patients. Maintain stable blood pressure and perfusion to the brain while avoiding extremes that might exacerbate cerebral edema or hemorrhage. Ensure proper airway management and oxygenation to prevent secondary brain injury. Frequent imaging (CT or MRI) monitors for changes in brain structure, blood flow, and response to treatment. Continuous ICP monitoring helps manage elevated pressure and prevent cerebral herniation.
Optimizing Antibiotic Therapy in the critically ill Patients
Optimizing antibiotic therapy in critically ill patients is a crucial aspect of modern healthcare. Critically ill patients often face severe infections, and appropriate antibiotic treatment can significantly impact their outcomes. However, due to various factors such as altered pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, selecting the right antibiotic regimen can be challenging. This short intro explores the importance of tailoring antibiotic therapy to individual patients, considering the severity of their condition, microbiological data, and the prudent use of antibiotics to achieve optimal outcomes in critically ill settings.
Management of Delirium in Critical Care
Delirium in critical care requires prompt recognition and management due to its association with poor patient outcomes. Multidisciplinary collaboration is essential for effective delirium management in the critical care setting. The use of validated delirium assessment tools, such as the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU), aids in early detection. Identifying and addressing underlying causes, such as infections, medication interactions, and metabolic imbalances, is crucial in managing delirium. Non-pharmacological interventions, including maintaining a consistent environment and promoting sleep, can help prevent and manage delirium. When pharmacological intervention is necessary, low-dose antipsychotics like haloperidol or quetiapine are commonly used. However, caution should be exercised with antipsychotic use, especially in elderly patients, due to the risk of adverse effects. Dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, has shown promise in managing delirium while promoting sedation and analgesia. Regularly reassessing the patient's cognitive status and delirium risk factors is essential to tailor management strategies.