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Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a group of disorders that affect the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. They are characterized by symptoms related to the motility and sensitivity of the gut. Common FGIDs include irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, and functional constipation. IBS is one of the most prevalent FGIDs, affecting millions of people worldwide. The exact cause of FGIDs is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychosocial factors. Symptoms of FGIDs can vary widely but often include abdominal pain, bloating, altered bowel habits, and gastrointestinal discomfort. The symptoms of FGIDs can significantly impact an individual's quality of life and daily functioning. Diagnosis of FGIDs is based on clinical criteria after ruling out other organic diseases. There is no cure for FGIDs, and treatment primarily focuses on managing symptoms and improving quality of life. Lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can play a significant role in managing FGIDs.
About the Speaker
Advanced Endoscopy Fellow BIDS , Global Hospital , Mumbai"
Case Discussion on Neonatal Jaundice
Neonatal jaundice, characterized by yellowing of a newborn's skin and eyes, is a common occurrence in the first days of life. It occurs due to the accumulation of bilirubin, a yellow pigment produced from the breakdown of red blood cells. In most cases, neonatal jaundice is physiological, resulting from the immature liver's inability to process bilirubin efficiently. Physiological jaundice typically appears within the first two to three days after birth and usually resolves within a week. Insufficient breast milk intake can lead to breastfeeding jaundice, where bilirubin levels rise due to fewer bowel movements and less bilirubin elimination. This occurs later, usually after the first week, and is associated with certain components in breast milk that interfere with bilirubin metabolism. Sometimes, elevated bilirubin levels can indicate an underlying issue, such as blood type incompatibility, genetic disorders, or infections.
Intensive Care Management of Acute Liver Failure
Acute liver failure is a rare but serious medical condition characterized by the rapid loss of liver function within a short period, typically days to weeks. It can be caused by various factors such as viral infections (like hepatitis), drug toxicity (such as acetaminophen overdose), autoimmune disorders, and metabolic diseases. Symptoms may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), confusion, bleeding, and abdominal swelling. Immediate medical attention is crucial, often requiring hospitalization and intensive care. Treatment involves addressing the underlying cause, managing complications, and, in severe cases, evaluating the need for a liver transplant. Early intervention and close medical monitoring are vital for improving outcomes in acute liver failure.
Case Discussion on Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by a group of symptoms rather than specific structural abnormalities. The exact cause of IBS is not fully understood, but factors such as abnormal gut motility, heightened sensitivity, and changes in gut microbiota may play a role. Common symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea, constipation, or alternating between both. IBS affects people of all ages, but it is most often diagnosed in individuals under 50 years old. It is more common in women than in men. Stress, diet, hormonal changes, and certain medications can trigger or worsen IBS symptoms. The diagnosis of IBS is made based on the patient's medical history, symptom pattern, and the exclusion of other gastrointestinal conditions. A low-FODMAP diet, which restricts certain fermentable carbohydrates, may benefit some IBS patients, especially those with bloating and gas. Fiber supplements can be helpful for constipation-predominant IBS, but they may worsen symptoms in those with diarrhea-predominant IBS. Probiotics may offer some relief for certain IBS patients by promoting a healthy gut microbiome.
Case Discussion on Management of GERD
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic condition characterized by the backward flow of stomach acid and digestive juices into the esophagus. Lifestyle modifications play a crucial role in managing GERD, such as avoiding trigger foods, maintaining a healthy weight, and elevating the head of the bed during sleep. Dietary changes, such as reducing acidic and fatty foods, can alleviate GERD symptoms and prevent exacerbation. Over-the-counter antacids provide short-term relief by neutralizing stomach acid, but they are not a long-term solution for managing GERD. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly prescribed medications that reduce stomach acid production and promote healing of the esophagus. H2 receptor antagonists are another class of medications that block histamine production and decrease acid production in the stomach. Regular exercise can aid in managing GERD by promoting weight loss and improving overall digestive health. Avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption is crucial, as both can worsen GERD symptoms and interfere with treatment.