- 41.6k views
Diabetes Mellitus- Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs
In those with diabetes whose systems still manufacture some insulin, oral diabetic medications aid in blood glucose control. The following list of oral pharmaceutical types is organized by drug classifications and functional characteristics. People with type 2 diabetes and other conditions where the body still produces some insulin may benefit from taking oral diabetes medications (taken by mouth) to help control blood sugar (glucose) levels. Along with regular exercise and dietary adjustments, these medications are given. For the best blood glucose control, many oral diabetic medicines may be combined with one another or with insulin. The various oral diabetic medications are described in general detail in this guide. You will gain additional knowledge about your drug. Take your medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor.
About the Speaker
Dr. Harikishan Boorugu
MD, DM Internal Medicine Yashoda Hospital
Diabetes Technologies-Innovations in Monitoring and Management
Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM): CGM devices provide real-time glucose data, helping individuals with diabetes track fluctuations and make informed decisions. Insulin pumps deliver a continuous supply of insulin, allowing for precise dosing and reducing the need for frequent injections. Closed-Loop Systems also known as artificial pancreas systems, these integrate CGM and insulin pumps to automatically adjust insulin delivery based on glucose levels. Smart Insulin pens record insulin doses and send data to mobile apps, aiding in medication adherence and tracking. Virtual consultations with healthcare providers enable remote monitoring and adjustments to diabetes management plans. Inhaled Insulin offers an alternative to injections for those uncomfortable with needles. This innovative insulin automatically adjusts its release based on blood sugar levels, mimicking the body's natural response. Implantable devices offer long-term glucose monitoring without the need for frequent sensor changes.
Diabetic Complications: Awareness & Prevention
Diabetes can lead to various complications that affect different parts of the body due to prolonged high blood sugar levels. Diabetic complications can be broadly categorized into two types: macrovascular (affecting large blood vessels) and microvascular (affecting small blood vessels). These include conditions like heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease, which increase the risk of cardiovascular events in people with diabetes. These complications affect small blood vessels and can lead to diabetic retinopathy (eye damage), nephropathy (kidney damage), and neuropathy (nerve damage). Nerve damage can cause tingling, numbness, pain, and loss of sensation, often starting in the feet and hands. High blood sugar can damage the blood vessels in the eyes, potentially leading to vision impairment and blindness. Prolonged high blood sugar can damage the kidneys and impair their ability to filter waste from the blood. Diabetes significantly increases the risk of heart disease and stroke, making heart health monitoring and management crucial. Poor circulation and nerve damage can lead to foot ulcers and infections, potentially requiring amputation in severe cases. While not a long-term complication, severe low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can lead to unconsciousness and requires immediate treatment.
Tackling NAFLD : Silent Epidemic
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is a silent epidemic characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver due to factors other than alcohol consumption. Lifestyle changes play a pivotal role in tackling NAFLD, with emphasis on adopting a balanced diet and engaging in regular physical activity. Reducing intake of sugary beverages, processed foods, and saturated fats can help improve NAFLD outcomes. Weight loss, achieved through a combination of diet and exercise, is one of the most effective ways to manage NAFLD. Regular physical activity not only aids in weight loss but also improves liver health by reducing inflammation. Avoiding excessive consumption of alcohol, even in the absence of alcoholic liver disease, is essential for NAFLD management. Diabetics and those with insulin resistance should work on glycemic control, as uncontrolled diabetes can worsen NAFLD. Incorporating foods rich in antioxidants, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, can help combat oxidative stress in the liver. Omega-3 fatty acids, found in fatty fish like salmon and flaxseeds, may have protective effects on the liver. Limiting the use of certain medications that can harm the liver and discussing alternatives with healthcare providers is crucial for NAFLD patients. Regular monitoring of liver function and liver fat levels can help track the progression of NAFLD and guide treatment decisions.
Type-1 Diabetes in Children
Type 1 diabetes in children is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. It is usually diagnosed in childhood or adolescence, though it can occur at any age. Children with type 1 diabetes require insulin injections or an insulin pump to manage their blood sugar levels. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes in children is not fully understood, but genetic and environmental factors may play a role. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children include frequent urination, excessive thirst, unexplained weight loss, and fatigue. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe complication that can arise if type 1 diabetes is left untreated or poorly managed. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and insulin pumps have significantly improved diabetes management in children. Children with type 1 diabetes need to follow a carefully balanced diet and monitor their carbohydrate intake. Regular physical activity is essential for children with type 1 diabetes, as it helps control blood sugar levels and promotes overall health. Careful monitoring of blood sugar levels is crucial to prevent hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) in children.
Diabetes Innovations in- Glucose Monitoring
Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) devices have revolutionized diabetes management by providing real-time glucose readings, eliminating the need for finger-pricking. Advances in CGM technology have led to smaller, more discreet sensors that can be worn for longer periods, improving patient compliance. Non-invasive glucose monitoring techniques, such as wearable patches and smartwatches, are emerging as promising alternatives to traditional blood-based methods. Integration of CGM data with smartphone apps and cloud-based platforms allows patients to track their glucose levels, analyze trends, and share data with healthcare providers for better personalized care. Implantable CGM sensors are being developed, which can provide long-term glucose monitoring without the need for frequent sensor replacements. Closed-loop insulin delivery systems, also known as artificial pancreas systems, use CGM data to automatically adjust insulin doses, leading to tighter glucose control.