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Colon cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine (colon). The colon is the final part of the digestive tract. Colon cancer typically affects older adults, though it can happen at any age. It usually begins as small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called polyps that form on the inside of the colon. Over time some of these polyps can become colon cancers. Polyps may be small and produce few, if any, symptoms. For this reason, doctors recommend regular screening tests to help prevent colon cancer by identifying and removing polyps before they turn into cancer.
About the Speaker
Dr Zakir K Mohamed
MRCSEd (Gen surg) CCBST (UK) MSc (Leeds) FRCSEd (Colorectal)FRCSEng CCT (UK)
Biosimilars and cancer Supportive Care
There have been several updates in adult vaccine recommendations since the last set of guidelines were released. One of the most notable: the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine be given to all amae and females aged 13 to 26. Vaccination is also recommended for males through age 26 who have sex with men and for those whose immune system may be compromised. Other significant changes include: The ACIP now suggests that adults without evidence of prior immunity to chickenpox receive the varicella vaccine. Special consideration should be given to those at high risk for infection or transmission, such as health care workers and teachers Those who are in close contact with people at high risk of infection. Family and others who come in contact with people with compromised immune systems
Understanding Gastric Cancer
Gastric cancer, often referred to as stomach cancer, is a malignancy that begins in the cells lining the stomach. Several factors increase the risk of developing gastric cancer, including infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria, a family history of the disease, smoking, and a diet high in salty or smoked foods. Gastric cancer can be categorized into several types, with adenocarcinoma being the most common. Other rare types include lymphoma, stromal tumors, and carcinoid tumors. Early-stage gastric cancer often shows no symptoms. As the disease progresses, symptoms may include abdominal pain, indigestion, unintentional weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy, where a flexible tube with a camera is inserted into the stomach to examine the lining and take biopsies. Imaging studies like CT scans and X-rays may also be used. Gastric cancer is staged to determine the extent of the disease. Stages range from 0 (limited to the inner lining) to IV (spread to distant organs). Treatment options depend on the stage and location of the cancer but may include surgery to remove the tumor, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapies, or immunotherapy.
Prognostic Factors in Lymphoma
Prognostic factors in lymphoma help healthcare professionals predict the course of the disease and tailor treatment strategies. The specific type of lymphoma, such as Hodgkin lymphoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), significantly influences prognosis. The extent of cancer spread at the time of diagnosis, categorized from stage I (localized) to stage IV (advanced), plays a crucial role in prognosis. In some cases, the size of the lymphoma mass or tumors can indicate the aggressiveness of the disease. Distinguishing between B-cell and T-cell lymphomas is essential, as they have different prognoses and treatment approaches. This marker indicates the rate of cell division in lymphoma cells, helping predict disease aggressiveness. The presence of bulky disease, characterized by large tumor masses, can be associated with a less favorable prognosis. Older age is often associated with a poorer prognosis, particularly in aggressive lymphomas.
Cancer prevention and early detection
Cancer prevention starts with adopting a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Avoid tobacco in all forms, as it is a major cause of several types of cancer, including lung, mouth, and throat cancers. Regular screening and early detection are crucial in detecting cancer at its earliest stages when treatment is most effective. Women should undergo regular breast self-examinations and mammograms to detect breast cancer early. Routine Pap tests can help detect cervical cancer in its early stages, offering a better chance of successful treatment. Regular dental check-ups are essential, as they may aid in the detection of oral cancers. Vaccinations against certain viruses, such as HPV and Hepatitis B, can help prevent infections linked to cancer. Limit exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as asbestos and industrial chemicals. Family history plays a role in cancer risk, so be aware of your family's medical history and discuss it with your doctor. Maintain a healthy weight, as obesity is linked to an increased risk of many cancers. Breastfeeding can reduce the risk of breast cancer in women. Avoid prolonged use of hormone replacement therapy unless necessary, as it may increase certain cancer risks.